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Hacia 1650 se publicó a nombre de Calderón de la Barca la obra Del Rey abajo, ninguno, pero veinte años después el autor de La vida es sueño la incluyó en una lista de obras apócrifas, se trata entonces de un texto de Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla, autor cómico creador del subgénero del "figurón".

Para venderlas mejor (las obras), varios impresores y editores (esos pillos) las habían publicado con la firma de Calderón. El caso es frecuente entre los autores del Siglo de Oro y es probable que en otras tradiciones dramáticas también, baste recordar el caso de Shakespeare y Moliére que se ha relatado en estas páginas cibernéticas.
A Lope de Vega le adjudicaron más de cien comedias ajenas, y a Rojas Zorrilla, una decena, a las que, al parecer, habrá que sumar probablemente Del Rey abajo, ninguno, que está por estrenar la Compañía Nacional de Teatro Clásico de España. Obra que sigue huérfana de padre, puesto que se publicó a nombre de Rojas Zorrilla cuando ya había fallecido, con otro título: El labrador más honrado, García del Castañar. El autor toledano no la incluyó en ninguna de las dos partes de sus comedias.

Hace medio siglo, el hispanista estadounidense Raymond R. MacCurdy, uno de los mayores expertos en Rojas Zorrilla, afirmó que Del rey abajo, ninguno no le parecía obra suya, y, para corroborarlo, comparó su versificación con la de sus comedias autógrafas.
Resulta paradójico que la comedia escogida por la Compañía Nacional de Teatro Clásico para celebrar el cuarto centenario de Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla sea Del rey abajo, ninguno. Los resultados son concluyentes: en éstas, en torno al 64% del verso es romance; en aquella, sólo el 26%. En ninguna de las comedias que dio a la imprenta hay liras, en la que nos ocupa hay 42 versos. Y así sucesivamente. Pero entonces, ¿de quién es Del rey abajo, ninguno? MacCurdy sugiere que de tres autores: Antonio de Solís, el propio Rojas Zorrilla y Calderón, que el 2 de junio de 1640 estrenaron ante Felipe IV en el estanque del Buen Retiro una comedia, de la que nos ha llegado el dato, pero no el título.

La autoría colectiva era moneda frecuente en el siglo XVII aunque la tradición dramática en lengua castellana haya omitido este tratamiento compuesto por varias personas y especialmente cuando había una voz ajena al autor y los actores, que en la tradición alemana recibió por primera vez el nombre de dramaturg. Con este término se designó una nueva figura mitad consejero literario y teatral, vinculado también a la producción general de una compañía, a un director o a un responsable de la preparación de un espectáculo. El primer Dramaturg que registra la historia fue Lessing: su Dramaturgia de Hamburgo (1767), compilación de críticas y reflexiones teóricas, una tradición alemana de actividad teórica y práctica que precede y determina la puesta en escena de una obra. El alemán distingue, a diferencia del francés y del castellano, el Dramatiker, el que escribe obras, del Dramaturg, que prepara su interpretación y su realización escénicas. Esta figura puede ser colectiva, o más bien sus funciones cambiantes, cosa muy frecuente entre compañías o grupos de teatro muy heterogéneos de gran formato.
Es probable que en estos procesos de montaje existiera un rol cambiante de dramaturguista, director y autor. Rojas, por su parte, tiene quince comedias compuestas a tres manos, cuatro de ellas con Calderón y con, sucesivamente, Antonio Coello, Juan Pérez de Montalbán, Luis de Belmonte y el mencionado Solís. Uno escribía la primera jornada, se la pasaba al siguiente, que redactaba la segunda, y el tercero remataba la faena. Los dramaturgos áureos hicieron cadáveres exquisitos avant-la-lettre.

En su edición de Del rey abajo, ninguno, la hispanista Brigitte Wittmann ofrece un dato que lía aún más la madeja, o que ayuda a desenhebrarla, según se mire: en el libro 42 de Comedias de diferentes autores (1650), donde Del rey abajo, ninguno figura a nombre de Calderón, hay otra obra titulada El labrador más honrado (como la edición suelta que luego aparece a nombre de Rojas Zorrilla, vaya coincidencia), firmada por "tres ingenios" anónimos. ¿Serán éstos los autores de aquélla? Sin embargo, Rojas Zorrilla figura como autor en el programa de mano, el libro, el cartel y la publicidad de la nueva producción española. Con todo, es un paso adelante respecto a la etapa anterior de la CNTC, cuando se montó y editó El burlador de Sevilla sin mencionar en parte alguna que la autoría de Tirso de Molina está en cuestión desde hace mucho, ni tampoco la hipótesis elaborada por Alfredo Rodríguez López-Vázquez, de que su verdadero autor puede ser Andrés de Claramonte.

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